The glass tile on the end of the syringe contains live vaccine suspended in dried sugar. Pushing clean water through it dissolves the sugar and activates the vaccine as it's injected into the patient.
Vaccination has pretty much rid the entire western world of some of its worst child-killing diseases - but a lot of these nasties are still causing death and debilitation in developing countries. There's one simple reason: because the vaccines contain living strains of the viruses they attack, they need to be kept continuously refrigerated all the way from production to the point of use - and that's an expensive and sometimes insurmountable logistical nightmare. Which is why this invention could save literally millions of lives...
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