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3D-printed castle heralds future of click-and-print architecture


September 1, 2014

Andrey Rudenko's 3D-printed castle

Andrey Rudenko's 3D-printed castle

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Though 3D printing technology is still relatively new, it may become an important tool for architects and the construction industry, as highlighted by projects like the recent 3D-printing of 10 homes in a day. The latest example of this progress comes via US-based Andrey Rudenko, who has created a small concrete "castle" structure in his backyard using a large 3D printer he built himself. Next up, he's making a house.

From small beginnings ...

The 3D-printed castle is 2 years in the making, and began with Rudenko first fabricating a small 3D printer which printed using plastic. It took some time before he scaled-up to a much larger unit that could print in concrete reliably, but once Rudenko had solved issues like clogging, he was good to go.

"In short, the printer is a 3D concrete-extruding machine which pushes/extrudes and layers concrete in very fine, high-quality layers of almost any size and configuration," explains Rudenko. "The machine is controlled by computer using the Arduino Mega 2560 micro-controller board; it prints directly from CAD files using a chain of software tools to control printing."

The castle took a total of 2 months to print from start to finish. The 3D printer pushed out strips of 10 x 30 mm (0.4 x 1.1 in) concrete, which were then layered atop each other. However, with a printing rate of 50 cm (19.6 in) per 8 hours, it could have been built much quicker had Rudenko not taken his time tweaking the printer's settings, testing its abilities, and ensuring that the quality was good.

The main body of the castle, which measures 3 x 5 m (10 x 16 ft) and 3.5 m (12 ft) high, was printed as one unit, while the turrets were then printed separately. Looking to the future

Rudenko's next project is to create a 3D-printed two-story home, which he told us he plans on printing in one piece, including the fireplace, kitchen island, and foundation for the staircase, plus columns, interior walls, and more.

"The next project is a real full-scale house. The size of the house will be defined with architects, but the printer should be able to print 10 x 20 m (32 x 65 ft), or more if the rails are extended," explains Rudenko. "I presume that with the rails extended, I could print up to 50-100 m (164 - 328 ft) long, but I have to experiment to prove it. The first house is going to be an experimental house.

"Hopefully, architects will come up with the some unique design for the house. The printer gives high quality layers that enhance the look of any building, so I am sure people will like it. The main issue is to get a permit for non-traditional method of construction. Ideally, I’d like to team with architects who take care of the construction project’s essentials, general contractor and project’s sponsor. Then, my focus will be on delivering high quality 3D printing of the house’s walls.

"The more important advances of this technology lie in its architectural possibilities and energy-efficiency. Architects have waited many years for this technology, and now that it's here, this opens up a whole window of possibilities; soon, we will see new kinds of architecture used to construct new structures."

Source: Andrey Rudenko

About the Author
Adam Williams Adam scours the globe from his home in North Wales in order to bring the best of innovative architecture and sustainable design to the pages of Gizmag. Most of his spare time is spent dabbling in music, tinkering with old Macintosh computers and trying to keep his even older VW bus on the road. All articles by Adam Williams

Two words: building codes. Concrete structures require reinforcing steel. While you can probably lay some of these in by hand, you'll have to reprogram your extruder paths to work around the vertical bars (that in most areas are required to be no more than 24" apart).

This will be a viable technology to build houses once you've designed end effectors for your gantry system that can automatically place rebar, plumbing, and electrical conduit.


I think that is way cool. It would be neat to see it used to print a small house or small structure.

Perhaps if the the material is still soft when first 'poured', one could add vertical support?


Malatrope, maybe they could reinforce it by laying a continuous wire at the same time, like a MIG welder hand piece delivers wire and gas


50cm in 8 hours?? That is incredibly slow!! Snails are a lot faster than that. I think that there must be a misprint there. 50cm in 8 seconds I could believe.


I would have appreciated pix of the process as well as of the product.


If he can figure out how to get the structure up to code it could make for great wealth.

Not all concrete structures need rebar. Roman builders didn't use rebar and some of their concrete bridges are still in use.

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