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New materials could soak up carbon emissions

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June 1, 2010

Metal-organic frameworks could be used to filter carbon from smokestack emissions (Photo: ...

Metal-organic frameworks could be used to filter carbon from smokestack emissions (Photo: Dori)

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Imagine a material that appears to be the size of a sugar cube, but when you unfold it, you discover it has the surface area of a football field. Besides its unbelievable surface area, this substance can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. Such materials are called metal-organic frameworks, and could be ideal candidates for filtering the carbon out of smoke stack emissions. With that end in mind, a team of California chemists are now racing to create a metal-organic framework that can be used in an industrial carbon sponge. Because there are millions of possible molecular variations, the team is using development techniques that are up to 100 times faster than conventional methods.

The project is being led by Jeffrey Long, a chemist at the University of California’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. His team has designed an automated robotic system that simultaneously synthesizes hundreds of metal-organic frameworks. These materials will be subjected to X-ray diffraction, followed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to see if they have the pore size distribution necessary for carbon capture. The materials that pass that test will go on to a high-throughout gas sorption analysis, to determine how well they could actually remove carbon dioxide from flue gas.

The robotic metal-organic framework machine

A computer algorithm will munch on the obtained data, and apply its output to the next round of test materials. Researchers will also assess promising materials, to see if they would be economically-feasible for large-scale use. Utilizing this system, Long’s team hopes to have a suitable material ready in no more than three years.

The molecular structure of a metal-organic framework

When used at power plants, existing carbon sponges are a bit of a compromise. Liquid amine scrubbers, for instance, sap up to 30% of the power created at the plant. Long hopes to discover a material that only takes off 10%. “We need to find the optimum range of metal-organic frameworks for each power plant,” he said. “Ultimately, this research is intended to lead to materials worthy of large-scale testing and commercialization.”

About the Author
Ben Coxworth An experienced freelance writer, videographer and television producer, Ben's interest in all forms of innovation is particularly fanatical when it comes to human-powered transportation, film-making gear, environmentally-friendly technologies and anything that's designed to go underwater. He lives in Edmonton, Alberta, where he spends a lot of time going over the handlebars of his mountain bike, hanging out in off-leash parks, and wishing the Pacific Ocean wasn't so far away.   All articles by Ben Coxworth
3 Comments

Anyone have and idea as to what happens to the "carbon sponges" when they are full? I realize that we are using less effective ones now but we do need to look at the full lifecycle. Otherwise this looks like a great idea. Then next step would to be able to convert the CO2 to carbon ash and oxygen. Then we could actually enrich the atmosphere. Maybe just pipe dream for now but who knows.

royale455@yahoo.com
2nd June, 2010 @ 08:37 am PDT

Considering that a 1000 MW coal plant produces 3 million lbs of co2 per hour, there is not any feasible method to "soak" up that much material. The only way is to stop burning coal.

Gene
3rd June, 2010 @ 10:10 am PDT

So how much energy does it take to create this compound, versus the amount of CO2 it can abosrb? Hopefully it takes less energy to create the compound than it can absorb, otherwise it's yet another way to make energy more expensive at the cost of being "carbon neutral".

Funny thing, Nature provides us with a method to capture CO2 and convert it to a useful fuel. It's called Plants.

Eletruk
3rd June, 2010 @ 11:29 am PDT
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